01 OCT 2020 (People & Environment) 1st and 2nd Shift NTA UGC NET JRF Question paper, Answer key

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1. Under goal 2 of millenium development goals, UN member countries were to ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls would be able to complete a full course of:

1. Primary education
2. Secondary education
3. Tertiary education
4. Skill based education
सहस्राब्दी विकास लक्ष्यों के लक्ष्य 2 के तहत, संयुक्त राष्ट्र के सदस्य देशों को यह सुनिश्चित करना था कि 2015 तक, हर जगह बच्चे, लड़के और लड़कियां एक पूर्ण पाठ्यक्रम पूरा करने में सक्षम होंगे:

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  Answer 1
Explanation: Goal 2: Ensure that all children, both boys and girls, are able to complete a full course in primary education by 2015.
The nitrogen and phosphorus content of sewage sludge is high, whereas the potassium content is low. The average nitrogen, as N, content of 6000 sewage sludge samples was 38.4 g/kg-SS (range 0.1–246.0); phosphorus, as P2O5, was 36.5 (range 0.2–344.0); potassium, as K2O, was 4.2 (range 0.1–95.0); magnesium, as MgO, was 9.7 (range 0.1–122.0); and calcium, as CaO, was 73.7 (range 0.1–727.0) by (Kopp and Dichtl, 2001).
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2. Among the following elements which is typically the most abundant in dried sewage sludge?


1. Total nitrogen
2. Total sulphur
3. Calcium
4. Total phosphorus
निम्नलिखित तत्वों में से कौन सूखे सीवेज कीचड़ में सबसे अधिक प्रचुर मात्रा में है?

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  Answer 3
Explanation: Any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue created during the municipal wastewater and sewage treatment process is referred to as sewage sludge.
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3. Dissolved oxygen (DO), an important parameter of water quality, is essential for survival of:


1. Humans
2. Animals
3. Fish
4. Crops and vegetables
घुलित ऑक्सीजन (डीओ), पानी की गुणवत्ता का एक महत्वपूर्ण पैरामीटर, किसके अस्तित्व के लिए आवश्यक है:

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  Answer 3
Explanation: One of the most important markers of water quality is dissolved oxygen (DO). It is necessary for fish and other aquatic species to survive. The aerating effect of winds generates oxygen to dissolve in surface water. Aquatic plant respiration releases in water as a byproduct. Fish and other aquatic species cannot survive when dissolved oxygen levels fall too low.
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4. Identify the correct sequence in decreasing order of the carbon content per unit mass of the following carbon reservoirs in the aquatic environment of oceans.

A. Sediments.
B. Living organisms.
C. Dissolved organic matter.
D. Dissolved inorganic matter.

1. D, A, B, C
2. A, D, C, B
3. B, C, A, D
4. C, B, A, D
महासागरों के जलीय वातावरण में निम्नलिखित कार्बन जलाशयों के प्रति इकाई द्रव्यमान में कार्बन सामग्री के घटते क्रम में सही क्रम की पहचान करें।

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  Answer 2
Explanation: NA ©navclasses




5. Mitigation measures to cope with floods include:
A. Elevating or protecting electrical service panels.
B. Upsizing culverts to better handle flood surges.
C. Protecting facilities with barriers and sandbags.
D. Removing trees and debris from the flood plain.
E. Relocating equipment outside the flood plain.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1. A, C, D and E only
2. A, B, C and E only
3. A, B, C, D and E
4. B, C, D, and E only
बाढ़ से निपटने के उपायों में शामिल हैं:
ए विद्युत सेवा पैनलों को ऊपर उठाना या संरक्षित करना।
B. बाढ़ की लहरों को बेहतर ढंग से संभालने के लिए पुलियों का आकार बदलना।
ग. बैरियर और सैंडबैग के साथ सुविधाओं की सुरक्षा करना।
D. बाढ़ के मैदान से पेड़ों और मलबे को हटाना।
ई. बाढ़ के मैदान के बाहर उपकरण स्थानांतरित करना।
नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही उत्तर चुनें:

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  Answer
Explanation: All are mitigation strategies and only option D says to remove trees is a negative point and will never result in mitigation instead result in soil erosion and flood.
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6. Assertion A: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) need to be phased out to protect the ozone layer.
Reason R: HFCs have a high global warming potential.


1. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
3. A is correct but is not correct.
4. A is not correct but R is correct.
अभिकथन A: ओजोन परत की रक्षा के लिए हाइड्रोफ्लोरोकार्बन (HFC) को चरणबद्ध तरीके से समाप्त करने की आवश्यकता है।
कारण आर: एचएफसी में उच्च ग्लोबल वार्मिंग क्षमता है।

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  Answer 4
Explanation: Firstly, the goal is to phase out CFCs and HCFCs as halogenated paraffin hydrocarbon gases.
HFCs were designed to replace CFCs and HCFCs, but they also collect and retain infrared radiation or heat in the earth’s lower atmosphere.
Following the phase-out of CFCs and HCFCs, HFCs are the next priority.
200 countries who signed the original Montreal Protocol agreed unequivocally that the climate hazards presented by HFCs are too great to ignore. HFCs will be phased out in developed countries starting in 2019. Between 2024 and 2028, developing countries will follow similarly.
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7. To put the world on a least cost pathway to limiting global warming to 2°C above the pre industrial level, global greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 with reference to 2017, require reduction to the extent of:

1. 25%
2. 15%
3. 10%
4. 20%
ग्लोबल वार्मिंग को पूर्व औद्योगिक स्तर से 2 डिग्री सेल्सियस तक सीमित करने के लिए दुनिया को कम से कम लागत के रास्ते पर रखने के लिए, 2017 के संदर्भ में 2030 तक वैश्विक ग्रीनहाउस गैस उत्सर्जन में कमी की आवश्यकता है:

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  Answer 1
Explanation: NA ©navclasses




8. Match List I with List II.

International Agreements Provisions
A. Kyoto Protocol I. Convention on Biodiversity
B. Paris Agreement II. Affordable, reliable clean energy
C. Rio Summit III. Nationally Determined Contributions
D. International Solar Alliance IV. Joint Implementation
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1. A – III, B – IV, C-I, D-II
2. A – IV, B – III, C-I, D-II
3. A – IV, B – III, C-II, D-I
4. A – III, B – II, C-IV, D-I
सूची I को सूची II के साथ सुमेलित करें।
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय समझौते के प्रावधान
ए क्योटो प्रोटोकॉल I. जैव विविधता पर कन्वेंशन
B. पेरिस समझौता II। सस्ती, भरोसेमंद स्वच्छ ऊर्जा
C. रियो शिखर सम्मेलन III। राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर निर्धारित योगदान
D. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सौर गठबंधन IV। संयुक्त कार्यान्वयन
नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही उत्तर चुनें:

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  Answer 2
Explanation: NA ©navclasses




9. Assertion (A): Emissions from diesel vehicles are relatively less harmful to human health in comparison to petrol vehicles.
Reason (R): Emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are inherently very low from diesel vehicles.

1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.
अभिकथन (A) : डीजल वाहनों से होने वाला उत्सर्जन पेट्रोल वाहनों की तुलना में मानव स्वास्थ्य के लिए अपेक्षाकृत कम हानिकारक है।
कारण (आर): डीजल वाहनों से हाइड्रोकार्बन और कार्बन मोनोऑक्साइड का उत्सर्जन स्वाभाविक रूप से बहुत कम है।

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  Answer 4
Explanation: NA ©navclasses




10. Assertion (A): Solar ponds, store solar energy in the form of heat
Reason (R): Solar ponds contain water with a definite gradient of salt concentration.

1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.
अभिकथन (ए): सौर तालाब, सौर ऊर्जा को गर्मी के रूप में संग्रहीत करते हैं
कारण (R) : सौर तालाबों में लवण सान्द्रता की निश्चित प्रवणता वाला जल होता है।

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  Answer 1
Explanation: A solar pond is a solar energy collector that resembles a pond and is typically rather large in size. This form of solar energy collector uses a huge, saline lake as a flat plate collector, absorbing and storing solar energy in the pond’s warm, bottom layers. These ponds can be natural or man-made, although the vast majority of solar ponds in use today are man-made.
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