09 OCT 2020 (People & Environment) 1st and 2nd Shift NTA UGC NET JRF Question paper, Answer key

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1. Assertion (A): Emissions from diesel vehicles are relatively less harmful to human health in comparison to petrol vehicles.
Reason (R): Emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are inherently very low from diesel vehicles.

1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.
अभिकथन (A) : डीजल वाहनों से होने वाला उत्सर्जन पेट्रोल वाहनों की तुलना में मानव स्वास्थ्य के लिए अपेक्षाकृत कम हानिकारक है।
कारण (R) : डीजल वाहनों से हाइड्रोकार्बन और कार्बन मोनोऑक्साइड का उत्सर्जन स्वाभाविक रूप से बहुत कम होता है।

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  Answer 4
Explanation: NA ©navclasses

 

2. Assertion (A): Solar ponds, store solar energy in the form of heat.
Reason (R): Solar ponds contain water with a definite gradient of salt concentration.

1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.
अभिकथन (A): सौर तालाब, सौर ऊर्जा को ऊष्मा के रूप में संग्रहित करते हैं।
कारण (R) : सौर तालाबों में लवण सांद्रण की निश्चित प्रवणता वाला जल होता है।

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  Answer 1
Explanation: A solar pond is a solar energy collector that resembles a pond and is typically rather large in size. This form of solar energy collector uses a huge, saline lake as a flat plate collector, absorbing and storing solar energy in the pond’s warm, bottom layers. These ponds can be natural or man-made, although the vast majority of solar ponds in use today are man-made.
©navclasses

 

3. India has a huge Thorium reserve, a potential source of nuclear energy. This thorium reserve is mainly confined in the

(1) rocks of Chhota Nagpur plateau
(2) muds of Sunderban delta
(3) coastal sands of Kerala sea
(4) sands of Thar desert
भारत के पास एक विशाल थोरियम भंडार है, जो परमाणु ऊर्जा का एक संभावित स्रोत है। यह थोरियम रिजर्व मुख्य रूप से सीमित है

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  Answer 3
Explanation: NA ©navclasses

 

4. Identify the objectives specific to sustainable Development Goals among the following:

A. Responsible consumption and production.
B. Life on land.
C. Improving maternal health.
D. Ensuring environmental sustainability.
E. Reduced inequality.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (B) and (E)
(2) (A), (C), (D) and (E)
(3) (B), (C), (D) and (E)
(4) (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E)
निम्नलिखित में से सतत विकास लक्ष्यों के लिए विशिष्ट उद्देश्यों की पहचान करें:
ए जिम्मेदार खपत और उत्पादन।
बी भूमि पर जीवन।
C. मातृ स्वास्थ्य में सुधार।
D. पर्यावरणीय स्थिरता सुनिश्चित करना।
ई. असमानता में कमी।
नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही उत्तर चुनें:

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  Answer 1
Explanation: NA ©navclasses

 

5. Which of the following sectors contributed least to the global carbon dioxide emissions in the year 2014 as per IPCC report?

A. Transportation.
B. Agriculture and forest land use.
C. Industry.
D. Utility (electricity and heat production).
आईपीसीसी की रिपोर्ट के अनुसार वर्ष 2014 में निम्नलिखित में से किस क्षेत्र ने वैश्विक कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड उत्सर्जन में सबसे कम योगदान दिया?

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  Answer 1
Explanation: According to the IPCC, the energy sector (47%) is followed by industry (30%), transportation (11%), and construction (3%). (medium confidence).
As per options, the transport sector contributes least to the global carbon dioxide emissions.
©navclasses

 

6. The aims and objectives of which of the following have co benefits with sustainable development goals?

(A) International solar alliance
(B) Montreal protocol
(C) Paris agreement
(D) Convention on biodiversity
(E) National action plan on climate change
Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A). (B). (C). (E) only
(2) (A). (C). (D). (E) only
(3) (A). (C). (E) only
(4) (B). (C). (D). (E) only
निम्नलिखित में से किसके उद्देश्यों और उद्देश्यों का सतत विकास लक्ष्यों के साथ सह-लाभ है?
(ए) अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सौर गठबंधन
(बी) मॉन्ट्रियल प्रोटोकॉल
(सी) पेरिस समझौता
(डी) जैव विविधता पर कन्वेंशन
(ई) जलवायु परिवर्तन पर राष्ट्रीय कार्य योजना
नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सबसे उपयुक्त उत्तर चुनें:

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  Answer 2
Explanation: > Montreal Protocol is separate and does not come under sustainable development goals. The Montreal Protocol is to save the ozone layer.
> Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India and France launched the International Solar Alliance initiative at the India Africa Summit and a conference of member countries ahead of the UNFCCC in Paris in November 2015. > All Paris Agreement, Convention on Biodiversity and National Action Plan on Climate Change are in the way to achieve SDGs.
©navclasses

 

7. In a city the noise levels represented by equivalent sound pressure levels over an 8 hours period were reported as 80 dB (A). What does ‘A’ refer to?

1. A type of amplifier used in the measurement.
2. A type of microphone used in.
3. The measurements of day time.
4. A type of weighting used in the measurement.
एक शहर में 8 घंटे की अवधि में समान ध्वनि दबाव स्तरों द्वारा दर्शाए गए शोर के स्तर को 80 डीबी (ए) के रूप में सूचित किया गया था। ‘ए’ किससे संबंधित है?

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  Answer 4
Explanation: Noise or sound weighting curves. The ear is less sensitive to low audio frequencies, hence A-weighting is added to instrument-measured sound levels to account for the relative loudness experienced by the human ear.
The resulting octave band measurements are frequently combined together (logarithmic approach) to get a single A-weighted value that describes the sound; the quantities are reported in decibels (dB) (A). Other value weighting settings – B, C, D, and Z.
> Frequency weighting ‘A’.
The ‘A’ weighting filter spans the entire frequency range of 20Hz to 20kHz, yet the shape closely resembles the human ear’s frequency sensitivity.
> Frequency weighting ‘C’.
This is a standard weighting of audible frequencies that is widely used to calculate Peak Sound Pressure.
> Frequency weighting with a ‘Z’.
This is a 1.5dB flat frequency response from 10Hz to 20kHz, omitting microphone response.
©navclasses

 

8. Given below are two statements:
Statement I: Diesel vehicles emit excessive amounts of oxides of nitrogen and fine particulate matter.
Statement II: The diesel engines run with rich mixtures having high air to fuel ratio.
In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct.
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect.
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect.
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct.
नीचे दो कथन दिए गए हैं:
कथन I: डीजल वाहन अत्यधिक मात्रा में नाइट्रोजन और सूक्ष्म कणों के ऑक्साइड का उत्सर्जन करते हैं।
कथन II: डीजल इंजन उच्च वायु से ईंधन अनुपात वाले समृद्ध मिश्रण के साथ चलते हैं।
उपरोक्त कथनों के आलोक में, नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सबसे उपयुक्त उत्तर का चयन करें:

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  Answer 3
Explanation: Statement I is correct: Diesels have higher NOx emissions and substantially greater particulate matter emissions when compared to petrol cars with a catalyst.
Statement II is wrong because petrol engines run with rich mixtures having high air to fuel ratio. Air–fuel ratio (AFR)
Thermal engines produce energy by combusting fuel and oxygen (from the air). Certain amounts of fuel and air must be supplied in the combustion chamber to ensure the combustion process.
Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio is the ideal (theoretical) air-fuel ratio for complete combustion. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio for a gasoline (petrol) engine is roughly 14.7:1. This means that 1 kilogramme of fuel requires 14.7 kilogrammes of air to burn entirely. Even if the AFR is not stoichiometric, combustion can take place.
©navclasses

 

9. Given below are two statements:

S One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).
Assertion (A): The problem of organic pollution in rivers is usually worse in hot summer months.
Reason (R): Higher water temperatures exacerbate oxygen depletion.
In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.
नीचे दो कथन दिए गए हैं:
एक को अभिकथन (A) और दूसरे को कारण (R) के रूप में लेबल किया गया है।
अभिकथन (A) : नदियों में जैविक प्रदूषण की समस्या आमतौर पर गर्म गर्मी के महीनों में बदतर होती है।
कारण (R) : पानी का उच्च तापमान ऑक्सीजन की कमी को बढ़ा देता है।
उपरोक्त कथनों के आलोक में, नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सबसे उपयुक्त उत्तर का चयन करें:

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  Answer 1
Explanation: Because higher water temperatures increase oxygen depletion, the issue of organic pollution in rivers is usually severe in the summer months.
©navclasses

 

10. Arrange the following fuels in decreasing order in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of energy output from their combustion:

A. Natural gas.
B. Coal (lignite).
C. Gasoline (without ethanol).
D. Propane.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) > (B) > (D)>(C)
(2) (B) > (A) > (C) > (D)
(3) (B) > (C) > (D)>(A)
(4) (D) > (B) > (C) > (A)
निम्नलिखित ईंधनों को उनके दहन से ऊर्जा उत्पादन की प्रति इकाई उत्सर्जित कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड की मात्रा के अनुसार घटते क्रम में व्यवस्थित करें:
ए प्राकृतिक गैस।
बी कोयला (लिग्नाइट)।
सी. गैसोलीन (इथेनॉल के बिना)।
डी प्रोपेन।
नीचे दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही उत्तर चुनें:

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  Answer 3
Explanation: NA ©navclasses
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