(12 NOV 2020) – Logical Reasoning, 1st & 2nd Shift NTA UGC NET JRF Question paper, Answer key

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1. Match list I with list II:

(Philosophical doctrines) (Philosophical schools)
(A) Syādavāda (I) Nyāya
(B) Anupalabdhi (II) Buddhism
(C) Apoha (III) Vedanta
(D) Abhāva (IV) Jainism
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1) (A)-(II), (B)-(IV), (C)-(III). (D)-(I)
2) (A)-(IV), (B)-(III), (C)-(II), (D)-(I)
3) (A)-(I), (B)-(II), (C)-(IV), (D)-(III)
4) (A)-(III), (B)-(1). (C)-(II), (D)-(IV)

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: > Jainism considers Syād-Vāda or the Saptabhangi means no theory can be complete in the world.
> Vedanta accepted Anupalabdhi as a category.
> Buddhism favours Apohawad which means Oha, like among A, B, C, 4, 3 all are distinct from each other.
> Nyāya accepted Abhava as a category.
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2. Assertion (A): Substance is always the subject of all predicates.
Reason (R): Substance is self-existent and self-conceived.

(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
(3) (A) is true but (R) is false
(4) (A) is false but (R) is true

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: > Substance is always the subject of all predicates. Example: hill is substance and is minor or subject of major term fire that is predicate.
> Spinoza explains substance means that which is in itself, and is conceived through itself.
Above two statements are unrelated and NOT the correct explanation.
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3. If some pens are pencils but no pencil is sharpener then:

(A) All pencils are pens
(B) Some sharpeners are pencils
(C) Some pens are not sharpener
(D) Some pencils are not pens

(1) (A) and (C) only
(2) (B) and (C) only
(3) (A) and (D) only
(4) (B) and (D) only

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 1
Explanation: > Its answer should be c. Only by merging two statements pen is undistributed we can derive undistributed, sharpener is distributed and negative, we can derive not with it, hence it is some not.
> But if we have to choose as per options then (b) cannot be answered as negative will give negative, so (a) is most suitable and positive.
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4. Match list I with list II: List I consists of the Vedangas and list II contains subjects dealt in them.
(A) Nirukta (I)Phonetics
(B) Chhandas (II)Ritual
(C) Shiksha (III) Metrics
(D)Kalpa (IV) Etymology

1) (A)-(II), (B)-(IV). (C)-(III), (D)-(I)
2) (A)-(IV), (B)-(III), (C)-(I), (D)-(II)
3) (A)-(III), (B)-(I). (C)-(II), (D)-(IV)
4) (A)-(I), (B)-(II), (C)-(IV), (D)-(III)

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: There are 6 Vedanga. These are:
1 Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics, phonology, pronunciation.
2 Chandas (meter/prostudy): prosody.
3 Vyakarana (Vyākaraṇa): grammar and linguistic analysis.
4 Nirukta: etymology, or the study of the origins of words, particularly those that are archaic and have obscure meanings.
5 Kalpa: ritual instructions.
6 Jyotisha (Jyotiṣa): Auspicious time for rituals, astrology and astronomy.
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5. Which one of the following schools has not accepted Anumāna (inference) as a valid source of knowledge?

A. Advaita
B. Vedānta
C. Visistādvaita Sankhya
D. Chārvāka

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 4
Explanation: Carvaka accepted only one (perception) is a reliable source of knowledge
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6. Which sentence cannot fit into the AEIO framework?

1. No salt has iodine
2. The salt on the table has iodine
3. All salt has iodine
4. Some salt has iodine

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: 1. No is E
2. The salt on the table has iodine cannot fit into the AEIO
3. All is A
4. Some I
Some not is O.
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7. Find the missing letters in the series:
BCA, YZX, EFD, ? HIG

1. UVW
2. VWU
3. WVU
4. VUW

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: To solve easily, write the alphabets.
Now observe from top. It’s in last A, then in 1st place B, in middle C.
Then next series is its opposite from bottom three digits written in above sequence XYZ as YZX
Then next series is 4th, 5th, 6th alphabet DEF as EFD
Then it’s opposite from the bottom UVW as VWU.
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8. The distinction between Purvavat and Sesavat is made with reference to which of the following Pramanas?


1. Anumana (Inference)
2. Pratyaksa (Perception)
3. Comparison (Upamana)
4. Abhava (Absence)

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 1
Explanation: Purvavat, Sesavat and Sâmânyatodta inference/ Samanyata Drsta are types of inference or Anuman.
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9. Everyone believes that there is a soul. Therefore, you should also believe it. This inference commits which kind of fallacy?

1. Ad hominem
2. Ad populum
3. Fallacy of accident
4. Fallacy of ambiguity

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 2
Explanation: > Everyone believes that there is a soul is Ad populum because it favours most people believes.
> Ad hominem is against the person.
> Fallacy of accident: when argument applies general rule to a particular case.
> Fallacy of ambiguity is unclear, involves confusion over meaning.
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10. God is great because He does great things. This inference commits which kind of fallacy?

1. Ad populum
2. Fallacy of composition
3. Fallacy of division
4. Petitio Principii

SHOW ANSWER
  Answer 4
Explanation: Petitio Principi or circular fallacy is when the same thing is repeated again and again, meaning assertion is repeated in reason and conclusion.
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