Computer Networking

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Computer Networking and Internet

Computer Networking : A computer network is a set of connected computers. Computers on a network are called nodes. The connection between computers can be done via cabling, most commonly the Ethernet cable, or wirelessly through radio waves. Connected computers can share resources, like access to the Internet, printers, file servers, and others.


1.Server – a computer designed to process requests and deliver data to other (client) computers over a local network or the Internet.

2.Receiver – a hardware module or device used to receive signals

3.Channel – physical connection between Server & Receiver

Transmission Channel:

Simplex channels – simplex is a communications channel that operates in one direction at a time.

Half duplex channel – A half-duplex channel can send and receive data, but not at the same time.

Full duplex channel – Refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously.

Types Data communication medium

  • Standard Telephone Line  
  • Co-Axial Cable
  • Microwave Tranmission
  • Satellite Communication
  • Optical Fibers

Network devices

Network adapter is a device that enables a computer to connect with other computer/network using MAC Address

Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers

Switch is a telecommunication device grouped as one of computer network components

Cable is one way of transmission media which can transmit communication signals.

Repeaters is used to regenerate or replicate signals that are weakened or distorted by transmission over long distances

Bridge is used two connect two LANs with the same standard but using different types of cables

Routers is used to join multiple computer networks together via either wired or wireless connections.

Gateways is a key stopping point for data on its way to or from other networks.

MODEM – Modulator-demodulator. Electronic device that allows computers to communicate over telephone wires or cable-TV cable.

Types of Network

Local Area Netwok(LAN) – a computer network that links devices within a building or group of adjacent Ex – Star LAN, Ring LAN, Bus LAN

Wide Area Network(WAN) – a computer network in which the computers connected may be far apart.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)- A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a LAN but smaller than the area covered by WAN. Ex- Public Networks Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) Public Service Digital Network (PSDN)

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data

Data transmission

NIC-Network interface card – A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network.

Wireless technology – Wireless communications is a type of data , a wireless signal through wireless communication technologies and device.

Network Related Terms

Protocol – It is set of rules and standards which is used by computers to exchange data or information with each other across a network.

Nodes – It is a connect point where either data transmission ends or redistribution of data starts.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.

IPV4 – 32 bits numeric address

IPV6 – 128 bits hexadecimal address

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet.

Network Service Provider (NSP) is a company that provides backbone services to an Internet service provider (ISP).

Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers’ HTTP clients.

Website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name

Web Page is a hypertext document connected to the World Wide Web.

Home page – the introductory page of a website

Hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a form of URI and is a standardized naming convention for addressing documents accessible over the Internet and Intranet.


Internet- a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.

Modem – a combined device for modulation and demodulation, for example, between the digital data of a computer and the analogue signal of a telephone line.

Web Browser – Web browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images and video.

Some important file extensions

.doc        Microsoft Word Document

.ppt         PowerPoint Presentation

.bmp       Bitmap Image File

.jpg         JPEG Image

.xls          Excel Spreadsheet

.exe         Windows Executable File

.bak        Backup File

The following is a list of Microsoft Office filename extensions, used in Microsoft Office software suite as of January 2017.



Legacy filename extensions denote binary Microsoft Word formating that became outdated with the release of Microsoft Office 2007. Although the latest version of Microsoft Word can still open them, they are no longer developed. Legacy filename extensions include:

.doc – Legacy Word document; Microsoft Office refers to them as “Microsoft Word 97 – 2003 Document”

.dot – Legacy Word templates; officially designated “Microsoft Word 97 – 2003 Template”

.wbk – Legacy Word document backup; referred as “Microsoft Word Backup Document”


Office Open XML (OOXML) format was introduced with Microsoft Office 2007 and became the default format of Microsoft Word ever since. Pertaining file extensions include:

.docx – Word document

.docm – Word macro-enabled document; same as docx, but may contain macros and scripts

.dotx – Word template

.dotm – Word macro-enabled template; same as dotx, but may contain macros and scripts

.docb – Word binary document introduced in Microsoft Office 2007



Legacy filename extensions denote binary Microsoft Excel formats that became oudated with the release of Microsoft Office 2007. Although the latest version of Microsoft Excel can still open them, they are no longer developed. Legacy filename extensions include:

.xls – Legacy Excel worksheets; officially designated “Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Worksheet”

.xlt – Legacy Excel templates; officially designated “Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Template”

.xlm – Legacy Excel macro


Office Open XML (OOXML) format was introduced with Microsoft Office 2007 and became the default format of Microsoft Excel ever since. Excel-related file extensions of this format include:

.xlsx – Excel workbook

.xlsm – Excel macro-enabled workbook; same as xlsx but may contain macros and scripts

.xltx – Excel template

.xltm – Excel macro-enabled template; same as xltx but may contain macros and scripts

Other formats

Microsoft Excel uses dedicated file format that are not part of OOXML and use the following extensions:

.xlsb – Excel binary worksheet (BIFF12)

.xla – Excel add-in or macro

.xlam – Excel add-in

.xll – Excel XLL add-in; a form of DLL-based add-in[1]

.xlw – Excel work space; previously known as “workbook”



.ppt – Legacy PowerPoint presentation

.pot – Legacy PowerPoint template

.pps – Legacy PowerPoint slideshow


.pptx – PowerPoint presentation

.pptm – PowerPoint macro-enabled presentation

.potx – PowerPoint template

.potm – PowerPoint macro-enabled template

.ppam – PowerPoint add-in

.ppsx – PowerPoint slideshow

.ppsm – PowerPoint macro-enabled slideshow

.sldx – PowerPoint slide

.sldm – PowerPoint macro-enabled slide


For a more extensive list of extensions, see Microsoft_Access § File_extensions.

Microsoft Access 2007 introduced new file extensions:

ACCDB – The file extension for the new Office Access 2007 file format. This takes the place of the MDB file extension.

ACCDE – The file extension for Office Access 2007 files that are in “execute only” mode. ACCDE files have all Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) source code hidden. A user of an ACCDE file can only execute VBA code, but not view or modify it. ACCDE takes the place of the MDE file extension.

ACCDT – The file extension for Access Database Templates.

ACCDR – is a new file extension that enables you to open a database in runtime mode. By simply changing a database’s file extension from .accdb to .accdr, you can create a “locked-down” version of your Office Access database. You can change the file extension back to .accdb to restore full functionality.

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Basics of Computer and Input Devices with Examples
CPU and Output Devices with Example
Printers and Storage Units
Cache, Registers, RAM ROM
Memory Units and Secondary Memory
Abacus, Napier’s Bones, Leibniz Calculator, Analytical Engine, Generation of Computers
Analog, Digital, Hybrid, Super, Mainframe, Mini, Micro Computers
Computer Networking- transmission media
Network Devices and Types of network LAN, WAN, MAN, ISDN
Data transmission, protocol, TCP/IP, IPV4 and IPV6
nternet related terms
User interface, CLI, GUI, NUI, RUI, OUI, VUI Computer Aptitude
Computer Languages
Translators, Assemblers, Compilers, interpretors- language processors
Types of Software and Operating systems
Application software with examples
Utility Software and open source software


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