Computer Networking and Internet
Computer Networking : A computer network is a set of connected computers. Computers on a network are called nodes. The connection between computers can be done via cabling, most commonly the Ethernet cable, or wirelessly through radio waves. Connected computers can share resources, like access to the Internet, printers, file servers, and others.
Half duplex channel – A half-duplex channel can send and receive data, but not at the same time.
Full duplex channel – Refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously.
Types Data communication medium
Network adapter is a device that enables a computer to connect with other computer/network using MAC Address
Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers
Switch is a telecommunication device grouped as one of computer network components
Cable is one way of transmission media which can transmit communication signals.
Bridge is used two connect two LANs with the same standard but using different types of cables
Routers is used to join multiple computer networks together via either wired or wireless connections.
Gateways is a key stopping point for data on its way to or from other networks.
MODEM – Modulator-demodulator. Electronic device that allows computers to communicate over telephone wires or cable-TV cable.
Types of Network
Wide Area Network(WAN) – a computer network in which the computers connected may be far apart.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)- A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a LAN but smaller than the area covered by WAN. Ex- Public Networks Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) Public Service Digital Network (PSDN)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data
NIC-Network interface card – A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network.
Network Related Terms
Protocol – It is set of rules and standards which is used by computers to exchange data or information with each other across a network.
Nodes – It is a connect point where either data transmission ends or redistribution of data starts.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.
IPV4 – 32 bits numeric address
IPV6 – 128 bits hexadecimal address
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet.
Network Service Provider (NSP) is a company that provides backbone services to an Internet service provider (ISP).
Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers’ HTTP clients.
Web Page is a hypertext document connected to the World Wide Web.
Home page – the introductory page of a website
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.
Modem – a combined device for modulation and demodulation, for example, between the digital data of a computer and the analogue signal of a telephone line.
Some important file extensions
.doc Microsoft Word Document
.ppt PowerPoint Presentation
.bmp Bitmap Image File
.jpg JPEG Image
.xls Excel Spreadsheet
.exe Windows Executable File
.bak Backup File
The following is a list of Microsoft Office filename extensions, used in Microsoft Office software suite as of January 2017.
Legacy filename extensions denote binary Microsoft Word formating that became outdated with the release of Microsoft Office 2007. Although the latest version of Microsoft Word can still open them, they are no longer developed. Legacy filename extensions include:
.doc – Legacy Word document; Microsoft Office refers to them as “Microsoft Word 97 – 2003 Document”
.dot – Legacy Word templates; officially designated “Microsoft Word 97 – 2003 Template”
.wbk – Legacy Word document backup; referred as “Microsoft Word Backup Document”
.docx – Word document
.docm – Word macro-enabled document; same as docx, but may contain macros and scripts
.dotx – Word template
.docb – Word binary document introduced in Microsoft Office 2007
Legacy filename extensions denote binary Microsoft Excel formats that became oudated with the release of Microsoft Office 2007. Although the latest version of Microsoft Excel can still open them, they are no longer developed. Legacy filename extensions include:
.xls – Legacy Excel worksheets; officially designated “Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Worksheet”
.xlt – Legacy Excel templates; officially designated “Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Template”
.xlm – Legacy Excel macro
Office Open XML (OOXML) format was introduced with Microsoft Office 2007 and became the default format of Microsoft Excel ever since. Excel-related file extensions of this format include:
.xlsx – Excel workbook
.xltx – Excel template
.xltm – Excel macro-enabled template; same as xltx but may contain macros and scripts
Microsoft Excel uses dedicated file format that are not part of OOXML and use the following extensions:
.xlsb – Excel binary worksheet (BIFF12)
.xla – Excel add-in or macro
.xlam – Excel add-in
.xlw – Excel work space; previously known as “workbook”
.ppt – Legacy PowerPoint presentation
.pot – Legacy PowerPoint template
.pps – Legacy PowerPoint slideshow
.pptm – PowerPoint macro-enabled presentation
.potx – PowerPoint template
.ppam – PowerPoint add-in
.ppsx – PowerPoint slideshow
.ppsm – PowerPoint macro-enabled slideshow
.sldx – PowerPoint slide
.sldm – PowerPoint macro-enabled slide
For a more extensive list of extensions, see Microsoft_Access § File_extensions.
Microsoft Access 2007 introduced new file extensions:
ACCDB – The file extension for the new Office Access 2007 file format. This takes the place of the MDB file extension.
ACCDE – The file extension for Office Access 2007 files that are in “execute only” mode. ACCDE files have all Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) source code hidden. A user of an ACCDE file can only execute VBA code, but not view or modify it. ACCDE takes the place of the MDE file extension.
ACCDT – The file extension for Access Database Templates.
ACCDR – is a new file extension that enables you to open a database in runtime mode. By simply changing a database’s file extension from .accdb to .accdr, you can create a “locked-down” version of your Office Access database. You can change the file extension back to .accdb to restore full functionality.
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|Printers and Storage Units|
|Cache, Registers, RAM ROM|
|Memory Units and Secondary Memory|
|Abacus, Napier’s Bones, Leibniz Calculator, Analytical Engine, Generation of Computers|
|Analog, Digital, Hybrid, Super, Mainframe, Mini, Micro Computers|
|Computer Networking- transmission media|
|Network Devices and Types of network– LAN, WAN, MAN, ISDN|
|Data transmission, protocol, TCP/IP, IPV4 and IPV6|
|nternet related terms|
|User interface, CLI, GUI, NUI, RUI, OUI, VUI Computer Aptitude|
|Translators, Assemblers, Compilers, interpretors- language processors|
|Types of Software and Operating systems|
|Application software with examples|
|Utility Software and open source software|