Reading Comprehension all notes for NTA UGC NET JRF

Reading Comprehension

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Reading Comprehension Basics and Tips

Nov 2017 Reading Comprehension

Read the passage carefully and answer question numbers from 11 to 15.

Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. Global climate varies naturally. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Vulnerability to climate change is not just a function of geography or dependence on natural resources; it also has social, economic and political dimensions which influence how climate change affects different groups. Poor people rarely have insurance to cover loss of property due to natural calamities i.e. drought, floods, super cyclones etc.

  1. Given below are the factors of vulnerability of poor people to climate change. Select the code that contains the correct answer. 

(a) Their dependence on natural resource

(b) Geographical attributes 

(c) Lack of financial resources 

(d) Lack of traditional knowledge 

 

Code : (1) (a), (b) and (c) 

(2) (b), (c) and (d) 

(3) (a), (b), (c) and (d) 

(4) (c) only

  1. Adaptation as a process enables societies to cope with :

(a) An uncertain future 

(b) Adjustments and changes 

(c) Negative impact of climate change 

(d) Positive impact of climate change 

Select the most appropriate answer from the following 

code : (1) (a), (b), (c) and (d) 

(2) (a) and (c) 

(3) (b), (c) and (d) 

(4) (c) only 

 

  1. To address the challenge of climate change, developing countries urgently require :

(1) Imposition of climate change tax 

(2) Implementation of national adaptation policy at their level 

(3) Adoption of short-term plans 

(4) Adoption of technological solutions

 

  1. The traditional knowledge should be used through :

(1) Its dissemination 

(2) Improvement in national circumstances 

(3) Synergy between government and local interventions 

(4) Modern technology

 

The main focus of the passage is on : 

 

(1) Combining traditional knowledge with appropriate technology 

(2) Co- ordination between regional and national efforts 

(3) Adaptation to climate change 

(4) Social dimensions of climate change

Read the passage carefully and answer question numbers from 11 to 15.

 

Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. Global climate varies naturally. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Vulnerability to climate change is not just a function of geography or dependence on natural resources; it also has social, economic and political dimensions which influence how climate change affects different groups. Poor people rarely have insurance to cover loss of property due to natural calamities i.e. drought, floods, super cyclones etc.

The poor communities are already struggling to cope with the existing challenges of poverty and climate variability and climate change could push many beyond their ability to cope or even survive. It is vital that these communities are helped to adapt to the changing dynamics of nature. Adaptation is a process through which societies make themselves better able to cope with an uncertain future. Adapting to climate change entails taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change (or exploit the positive ones) by making the appropriate adjustments and changes. These range from technological options such as increased sea defences or flood – proof houses on stilts to behavioural change at the individual level, such as reducing water use in times of drought. Other strategies include early warning systems for extreme events, better water management, improved risk management, various insurance options and biodiversity conservation. Because of the speed at which climate change is happening due to global temperature rise, it is urgent that the vulnerability of developing countries to climate change is reduced and their capacity to adapt is increased and national adaptation

plans are implemented.

Adapting to climate change will entail adjustments and changes at every

level from community to national and international. Communities must build their resilience, including adopting appropriate technologies while making the most of traditional knowledge, and diversifying their livelihoods to cope with current and future climate stress. Local coping strategies and knowledge need to be used in synergy with government and local interventions. The need of adaptation interventions depends on national circumstances. There is a large body of knowledge and experience within local communities on coping with climatic variability and extreme weather events. Local communities have always aimed to adapt to variations in their climate. To do so, they have made preparations based on their resources and their knowledge accumulated through experience of past weather patterns. This includes times when they have also been forced to react to and recover from extreme events, such as floods, drought and hurricanes. Local coping strategies are an important element of planning for adaptation.

Climate change is leading communities to experience climatic extremes more frequently, as well as new climate conditions and extremes. Traditional knowledge can help to provide efficient, appropriate and time – tested ways of advising and enabling adaptation to climate change in communities who are feeling the effects of climate changes due to global warming. 

  1. Given below are the factors of vulnerability of poor people to climate change. Select the code that contains the correct answer. 

(a) Their dependence on natural resources 

(b) Geographical attributes 

(c) Lack of financial resources 

(d) Lack of traditional knowledge 

 

Code : (1) (a), (b) and (c) 

(2) (b), (c) and (d) 

(3) (a), (b), (c) and (d) 

(4) (c) only

The poor communities are already struggling to cope with the existing challenges of poverty and climate variability and climate change could push many beyond their ability to cope or even survive. It is vital that these communities are helped to adapt to the changing dynamics of nature. Adaptation is a process through which societies make themselves better able to cope with an uncertain future. Adapting to climate change entails taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change (or exploit the positive ones) by making the appropriate adjustments and changes. These range from technological options such as increased sea defences or flood – proof houses on stilts to behavioural change at the individual level, such as reducing water use in times of drought. Other strategies include early warning systems for extreme events, better water management, improved risk management, various insurance options and biodiversity conservation. Because of the speed at which climate change is happening due to global temperature rise, it is urgent that the vulnerability of developing countries to climate change is reduced and their capacity to adapt is increased and national adaptation

plans are implemented.

  1. Adaptation as a process enables societies to cope with :

(a) An uncertain future 

(b) Adjustments and changes 

(c) Negative impact of climate change 

(d) Positive impact of climate change 



Select the most appropriate answer from the following 

code : (1) (a), (b), (c) and (d) 

(2) (a) and (c) 

(3) (b), (c) and (d) 

(4) (c) only 

  1. To address the challenge of climate change, developing countries urgently require :

 

(1) Imposition of climate change tax 

(2) Implementation of national adaptation policy at their level 

(3) Adoption of shortterm plans 

(4) Adoption of technological solutions

The poor communities are already struggling to cope with the existing challenges of poverty and climate variability and climate change could push many beyond their ability to cope or even survive. It is vital that these communities are helped to adapt to the changing dynamics of nature. Adaptation is a process through which societies make themselves better able to cope with an uncertain future. Adapting to climate change entails taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change (or exploit the positive ones) by making the appropriate adjustments and changes. These range from technological options such as increased sea defences or flood proof houses on stilts to behavioural change at the individual level, such as reducing water use in times of drought. Other strategies include early warning systems for extreme events, better water management, improved risk management, various insurance options and biodiversity conservation. Because of the speed at which climate change is happening due to global temperature rise, it is urgent that the vulnerability of developing countries to climate change is reduced and their capacity to adapt is increased and national adaptation

plans are implemented.

  1. The traditional knowledge should be used through :

 

(1) Its dissemination 

(2) Improvement in national circumstances 

(3) Synergy between government and local interventions 

(4) Modern technology

Adapting to climate change will entail adjustments and changes at every

level from community to national and international. Communities must build their resilience, including adopting appropriate technologies while making the most of traditional knowledge, and diversifying their livelihoods to cope with current and future climate stress. Local coping strategies and knowledge need to be used in synergy with government and local interventions. The need of adaptation interventions depends on national circumstances. There is a large body of knowledge and experience within local communities on coping with climatic variability and extreme weather events. Local communities have always aimed to adapt to variations in their climate. To do so, they have made preparations based on their resources and their knowledge accumulated through experience of past weather patterns. This includes times when they have also been forced to react to and recover from extreme events, such as floods, drought and hurricanes. Local coping strategies are an important element of planning for adaptation.

  1. The main focus of the passage is on : 

(1) Combining traditional knowledge with appropriate technology 

(2) Co-ordination between regional and national efforts 

(3) Adaptation to climate change 

(4) Social dimensions of climate change

December 2015

 

  1. When confronted with signing a big card, the author felt like “a rabbit in the headlight”. What does this phrase mean?

(A) A state of confusion

(B) A state of pleasure

(C) A state of anxiety

(D) A state of pain



  1. According to the author, which one is not the most creative outlet of pursuit?

(A) Handwriting

(B) Photography

(C) Sketching

(D) Reading

  1. The entire existence of the author revolves round

(a) Computer

(b) Mobile phone

(c) Typewriter

Identify the correct answer from the codes given below

(A) (b) only

(B) (a) and (b) only

(C) (a), (b) and (c)  

(D) (b) and (c) only

 

  1. How many teens, as per the Bic survey, do not own a pen?

(A) 800

(B) 560

(C) 500

(D) 100

  1. What is the main concern of the author?

(A) That the teens use social networks for communication.

(B) That the teens use mobile phones.

(C) That the teens use computer.

(D) That the teens have forgotten the art of handwriting.

December 2015

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions

 

I did that thing recently where you have to sign a big card which is a horror unto itself, especially as the keeper of the Big Card was leaning over me at the time. Suddenly I was on the spot, a rabbit in the headlights, torn between doing a fun message or some sort of in-joke or a drawing. Instead overwhelmed by the myriad options available to me, I decided to just write “Good luck, best, Joel”.

 

It was then that I realised, to my horror, that I had forgotten how to write. My entire existence is “tap letters into computer”. My shopping lists are hidden in the notes function of my phone. If I need to remember something I send an e-mail to myself. A pen is something I chew when I’m struggling to think. Paper is something I pile beneath my laptop to make it a more comfortable height for me to type on.

A poll of 1,000 teens by the stationers, Bic found that one in 10 don’t own a pen, a third have never written a letter, and half of 13 to 19 years – old have never been forced to sit down and write a thank you letter. More than 80% have never written a love letter, 56% don’t have letter paper at home. And a quarter have never known the unique torture of writing a birthday card. The most a teen ever has to use a pen is on an exam paper.

 

Bic, have you heard of mobile phones ? Have you heard of e-mail, facebook and snapchatting? This is the future. Pens are dead. Paper is dead. Handwriting is a relic.

 

“Handwriting is one of the most creative outlets we have and should be given the same importance as other art forms such as sketching, 

painting or photography.”

  1. When confronted with signing a big card, the author felt like “a rabbit in the headlight. What does this phrase mean?

(A) A state of confusion

(B) A state of pleasure

(C) A state of anxiety

(D) A state of pain

 

To be visibly startled and frozen in fear

  1. According to the author, which one is not the most creative outlet of pursuit?

(A) Handwriting

(B) Photography

(C) Sketching

(D) Reading

  1. The entire existence of the author revolves round

(a) Computer

(b) Mobile phone

(c) Typewriter

Identify the correct answer from the codes given below

(A) (b) only

(B) (a) and (b) only

(C) (a), (b) and (c)  

(D) (b) and (c) only

 

  1. How many teens, as per the Bic survey, do not own a pen?

(A) 800

(B) 560

(C) 500

(D) 100

 

  1. What is the main concern of the author?

(A) That the teens use social networks for communication.

(B) That the teens use mobile phones.

(C) That the teens use computer.

(D) That the teens have forgotten the art of handwriting.

A poll of 1,000 teens by the stationers, Bic found that one in 10 don’t own a pen, a third have never written a letter, and half of 13 to 19 years – old have never been forced to sit down and write a thank you letter. More than 80% have never written a love letter, 56% don’t have letter paper at home. And a quarter have never known the unique torture of writing a birthday card. The most a teen ever has to use a pen is on an exam paper.

 

Bic, have you heard of mobile phones ? Have you heard of e-mail, facebook and snapchatting? This is the future. Pens are dead. Paper is dead. Handwriting is a relic.

“Handwriting is one of the most creative outlets we have and should be given the same importance as other art forms such as sketching, 

painting or photography.”

  1. The entire existence of the author revolves round

(a) Computer

(b) Mobile phone

(c) Typewriter

Identify the correct answer from the codes given below

(A) (b) only

(B) (a) and (b) only

(C) (a), (b) and (c)  

(D) (b) and (c) only

 

  1. How many teens, as per the Bic survey, do not own a pen?

(A) 800

(B) 560

(C) 500

(D) 100

 

  1. What is the main concern of the author?

(A) That the teens use social networks for communication.

(B) That the teens use mobile phones.

(C) That the teens use computer.

(D) That the teens have forgotten the art of handwriting.

   

Jan 2017

 

Read the following passage carefully and answer questions from 1 to 6 :http://bit.ly/navclasses

The last great war, which nearly shook the foundations of the modern world, had little

impact on Indian literature beyond aggravating the popular revulsion against violence and

adding to the growing disillusionment with the ‘humane pretensions’ of the Western World.

This was eloquently voiced in Tagore’s later poems and his last testament, Crisis in Civilisation.

The Indian intelligentsia was in a state of moral dilemma. On the one hand, it could not help

sympathising with England’s dogged courage in the hour of peril, with the Russians fighting

with their backs to the wall against the ruthless Nazi hordes, and with China groaning under the

heel of Japanese militarism; on the other hand, their own country was practically under military

occupation of their own soil, and an Indian army under Subhas Bose was trying from the

opposite camp to liberate their country. No creative impulse could issue from such confusion of

loyalties. One would imagine that the achievement of Indian independence in 1947, which came

in the wake of the Allies’ victory and was followed by the collapse of colonialism in the

neighbouring countries of South-East Asia, would have released an upsurge of creative energy.

No doubt it did, but unfortunately it was soon submerged in the great agony of partition, with its in human slaughter of the innocents and the uprooting of millions of people from their homeland, followed by the martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi. These tragedies, along with Pakistan’s invasion of Kashmir and its later atrocities in Bangladesh, did indeed provoke a poignant writing, particularly in the languages of the regions most affected, Bengali, Hindi, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu. But poignant or passionate writing does not by itself make great literature. What reserves of enthusiasm and confidence survived these disasters have been mainly absorbed in the task of national reconstruction and economic development. Great literature has always emerged out of chains of convulsions. Indian literature is richer today in volume, range and variety than it ever was in the past. 

  1. What was the impact of the last great war on Indian literature ? 

(1) It had no impact. 

(2) It aggravated popular revulsion against violence. 

(3) It shook the foundations of literature. 

(4) It offered eloquent support to the Western World. 



  1. What did Tagore articulate in his last testament ?

(1) Offered support to Subhas Bose. 

(2) Exposed the humane pretensions of the Western World. 

(3) Expressed loyalty to England. 

(4) Encouraged the liberation of countries. 

 

  1. What was the stance of Indian intelligentsia during the period of great war ?

(1) Indifference to Russia’s plight. 

(2) They favoured Japanese militarism. 

(3) They prompted creativity out of confused loyalties. 

(4) They expressed sympathy for England’s dogged courage. 

  1. Identify the factor responsible for the submergence of creative energy in Indian literature. 

(1) Military occupation of one’s own soil. 

(2) Resistance to colonial occupation. 

(3) Great agony of partition. 

(4) Victory of Allies. 

 

  1. What was the aftermath that survived tragedies in Kashmir and Bangladesh ?

(1) Suspicion of other countries 

(2) Continuance of rivalry 

(3) Menace of war 

(4) National reconstruction 

 

  1. The passage has the message that 

(1) Disasters are inevitable. 

(2) Great literature emerges out of chains of convulsions. 

(3) Indian literature does not have a marked landscape. 

(4) Literature has no relation with war and independence.

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. What is not a consistent concern across the two organisational contexts ?

(A) Dissimilarity

(B) Product package

(C) Financial return

(D) Company longevity




  1. What will be sufficient for an independent production company to be successful ?

(A) New product innovations                        

(B) Financial returns from each new film

(C) Active role by firm’s participants 

(D) Organisational context

  1. Why do film production houses value experience highly ?

(A) Because of the importance of trial and error methods.

(B) Because of the margin for learning.

(C) Because of short time horizons.

(D) Because it allows easy entry to everyone into the film world.



  1. According to the author, what has been the focus of film business ?

(A) Formal education

(B) Mentoring

(C) Exploitation

(D) Indirect experience





August 2016

Read the following passage carefully and answer questions:

Many aspects of the motionpicture industry and its constituent companies are dissimilar to those observable in advanced-technology industries and firms. For instance, company longevity does not represent a consistent concern across the two organisational contexts. In the advanced-technology company for example, one new-product innovation – which is expected to generate financial returns to the firm – is insufficient for the company to be successful.

Rather, a stream of new product innovations is required. By contrast with the independent production company of this case, each new film – which is expected to generate financial returns to the principals – is sufficient for the company to be successful. Any subsequent new films involving the firm’s participants will be produced by a 

different independent company.

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. What is not a consistent concern across the two organisational contexts ?

(A) Dissimilarity

(B) Product package

(C) Financial return

(D) Company longevity

 

 Answer – (D)    

 

  1. What will be sufficient for an independent production company to be successful ?

(A) New product innovations                        

(B) Financial returns from each new film

(C) Active role by firm’s participants 

(D) Organisational context

 

 Answer – (B)    

As another instance, people’s learning is expected to have different contributors and beneficiaries across the two organizational contexts. In the advanced-technology company, for example, each new product innovation provides an opportunity for participants on the project team to learn and acquire experience, and this same company intends to retain such participants, hence, benefit from their increased experience on the next project. By contrast with the independent production company, each new film provides an opportunity for participants on the project team to learn and acquire this experience also, but this same company has little or no expectation of retaining such participants, and hence, benefitting from their increased experience in the next project.

 

  1. What does an advanced-technology company expect from the learning experience of its participants ?

(A) Benefit for the next project 

(B) Opportunity for more learning

(C) Little expectation of retaining them 

(D) Help in marketing the previous product

 

 Answer – (A)    

 

  1. What is not the expectation of an independent production company in the case of its participants?

(A) Absence from the next project. 

(B) Retention for the next project.

(C) Participation in the current project. 

(D) Use of opportunity to acquire experience.

 

 Answer – (B)    

Experience is paramount in the motion-picture industry. Generally, on film projects, budgets are very tight, and schedules are very demanding. People are hired largely based on their experience and are expected to perform well immediately when called to do so. There is negligible slack time or margin for learning through trial and error, but experienced people learn exactly through trial and error. Because experience is valued so highly and film-production houses have such short time horizons, entry into the industry is very difficult for most people. Further, the role played by schools and colleges is minimal in this industry. Some skills and techniques can be learned and refined through formal education (e.g., acting schools, theatre, film degrees), but the majority come through direct experience. Mentoring plays an important role. True, the film business focuses heavily on exploitation over exploration. Yet success of the industry as a whole is critically dependent upon learning and exploration overtime.

  1. Why do film production houses value experience highly ?

(A) Because of the importance of trial and error methods.

(B) Because of the margin for learning.

(C) Because of short time horizons.

(D) Because it allows easy entry to everyone into the film world.

Answer – (C)    

 

  1. According to the author, what has been the focus of film business ?

(A) Formal education

(B) Mentoring

(C) Exploitation

(D) Indirect experience

 

Answer – (C)

December 2014

The literary distaste for politics, however, seems to be focused not so much on the largely murky practice of politics in itself as a subject of literary representation but rather more on how it is often depicted in literature, i.e., on the very politics of such representation. A political novel often turns out to be not merely a novel about politics but a novel with a politics of its own, for it seeks not merely to show us how things are but has fairly definite ideas about how things should be, and precisely what one should think and do in order to make things move in that desired direction. In short, it seeks to convert and enlist the reader to a particular cause or ideology; it often is (in an only too familiar phrase) not literature but propaganda. This is said to violate the very spirit of literature which is to broaden our understanding of the world and the range of our sympathies rather than to narrow them down through partisan commitment. As John Keats said, ‘We hate poetry that has a palpable 

design upon us’.

Another reason why politics does not seem amenable to the highest kind of literary representation seems to arise from the fact that politics by its very nature is constituted of ideas and ideologies. If political situations do not lend themselves to happy literary treatment, political ideas present perhaps an even greater problem in this regard. Literature, it is argued, is about human experiences rather than about intellectual abstractions; it deals in what is called the ‘felt reality’ of human flesh and blood, and in sap and savour. (rasa) rather than in and lifeless ideas. In an extensive discussion of the matter in her book Ideas and the Novel, the American novelist Mary McCarthy observed that ‘ideas are still today felt to be unsightly in the novel’ though that was not so in ‘former days’, i.e., in the 18th and 19th centuries. Her formulation of the precise nature of the incompatibility between ideas on the one hand and the novel on the other betrays perhaps a divided conscience in the matter and a sense of dilemma shared by many writers and readers: ‘An idea cannot have loose ends, but a novel, I almost think, needs them. Nevertheless, there is enough in 

common for the novelists to feel the attraction of ideas while 

taking up arms against them — most often with weapons of mockery.’

 

  1. The constructs of politics by its nature is

(A) Prevalent political situation

(B) Ideas and Ideologies

(C) Political propaganda

(D) Understanding of human nature

 

   Answer – (C)    

 

  1. Literature deals with

(A) Human experiences in politics

(B) Intellectual abstractions

(C) Dry and empty ideas

(D) Felt reality of human life

 

  Answer – (D)    



  1. The observation of the novelist, May McCarthy reveals

(A) Unseen felt ideas of today in the novel

(B) Dichotomy of conscience on political ideas and novels

(C) Compatibility between idea and novel

(D) Endless idea and novels

 

   Answer – (B)    

  1. According to the passage, a political novel often turns out to be a

(A) Literary distaste for politics

(B) Literary representation of politics

(C) Novels with its own politics

(D) Depiction of murky practice of politics

 

   Answer – (C)    

 

  1. A political novel reveals

(A) Reality of the tings

(B) Writer’s perception

(C) Particular ideology of the readers

(D) The spirit of literature

 

   Answer – (B)    

July 2016
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:

In terms of labour, for decades the relatively low cost and high quality of Japanese workers conferred considerable competitive advantage across numerous durable goods and consumer-electronics industries (eg. Machinery, automobiles, televisions, radios). Then labour-based advantages shifted to South Korea, then to Malaysia, Mexico and other nations. Today, China appears to be capitalizing best on the basic of labour, Japanese firms still remain competitive in markets for such durable goods, electronics and other products, but the labour force is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over manufacturers in other industrializing nations. Such shifting of labour-based advantage is clearly not limited to manufacturing industries. Today a huge number of IT and service jobs are moving from Europe and North America to India, Singapore, and like countries with relatively well-educated, low-cost workforces possessing technical skills. However, as educational levels and technical skills continue to rise in other countries, India, Singapore and like nations enjoying labour-based competitive advantage today are likely to find such advantage cannot be sustained through emergence of new competitors.

In terms of capital, for centuries the days of gold coin and later even paper money restricted financial flows. Subsequently regional concentrations were formed where large banks, industries and markets coalesced. But today capital flows internationally at rapid speed. Global commerce no longer requires regional interactions among business players. Regional capital concentrations in places such as New York, London and Tokyo still persist, of course, but the capital concentrated there is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over other capitalists distributed worldwide. Only if an organization is able to combine, integrate and apply its resources (eg. Land, labour, capital, IT) in an effective manner that is not readily imitable by competitors can such an organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime.

In a knowledge-based theory of the firm, this idea is extended to view organizational knowledge as resource with atleast the same level of power and importance as the traditional economic inputs. An organization with superior knowledge can achieve competitive advantage in markets that appreciate the application of such knowledge. Semiconductors, genetic engineering, pharmaceuticals, software, military warfare, and like knowledge-intensive competitive arenas provide both time-proven and current examples. Consider semiconductors (e. g. computer chips), which are made principally of sand and common metals, these ubiquitous and powerful electronics devices are designed within common office buildings, using commercially available tools, and fabricated within factories in many industrialized nations. Hence, land is not the key competitive recourse in the semiconductor industry.


  1. What is required to ensure competitive advantages in specific markets?
    (A) Access to capital
    (B) Common office buildings
    (C) Superior knowledge
    (D) Common metals



    2. The passage also mentions about the trend of
    (A) Global financial flow
    (B) Absence of competition in manufacturing industry
    (C) Regionalisation of capitalists
    (D) Organizational incompatibility


  2. What does the author lay stress on in the passage?
    (A) International commerce
    (B) Labour-Intensive industries
    (C) Capital resource management
    (D) Knowledge-driven competitive advantage



    4. Which country enjoyed competitive advantages in automobile industry for decades?
    (A) South Korea
    (B) Japan
    (C) Mexico
    (D) Malaysia

  3. Why labour-based competitive advantages of India and Singapore cannot be sustained in IT and service sectors?
    (A) Due to diminishing levels of skill.
    (B) Due to capitalintensive technology making inroads.
    (C) Because of new competitors.
    (D) Because of shifting of labour-based advantage in manufacturing industries.



    6. How can an organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime?
    (A) Through regional capital flows.
    (B) Through regional interactions among business players.
    (C) By making large banks, industries and markets coalesced.
    (D) By effective use of various instrumentalities.

June 2015
Read the following passage carefully and answer the question.:


Story telling is not in our genes. Neither it is an evolutionary history. It is the essence of what makes us Human.

Human beings progress by telling stories. One event can result in a great variety of stories being told about it. Sometimes those stories differ greatly. Which stories are picked up and repeated and which ones are dropped and forgotten often determines how we progress. Our history, knowledge and understanding are all the collections of the few stories that survive. This includes the stories that we tell each other about the future. And how the future will turn out depends partly, possibly largely, on which stories we collectively choose to believe.

Some stories are designed to spread fear and concern. This is because some story-tellers feel that there is a need to raise some tensions. Some stories are frightening, they are like totemic warnings : “Fail to act now and we are all doomed.” Then there are stories that indicate that all will be fine so long as we leave everything upto a few especiallv able adults. Currently, this trend is being led by those who call themselves “rational optimists”. They tend to claim that it is human nature to compete and to succeed and also to profit at the expense of others. The rational optimists however, do not realize how humanity has progressed overtime through amiable social networks and how large groups work in less selfishness and in the process accommodate rich and poor, high and low alike. This aspect in story-telling is considered by the ‘Practical Possibles’, who sit between those who say all is fine and cheerful and be individualistic in your approach to a successful future, and those who ordain pessimism and fear that we are doomed.

What the future holds for us is which stories we hold on to and how we act on them.


1.Our knowledge is a collection of
(A) all stories that we have heard during our life-time
(B) some stories that we remember
(C) a few stories that survive
(D) some important stories



2. Story telling is
(A) an art
(B) a science
(C) in our genes
(D) the essence of what makes us human


  1. How the future will turn out to be, depends upon the stories
    (A) We collectively choose to believe in
    (B) Which are repeate
  2. ly narrated
    (C) Designed to spread fear and tension
    (D) Designed to make prophecy

    4. Rational optimists :
    1) Look for opportunities
    2) Are sensible and cheerful
    3) Are selfishly driven

    (A) (a), (b) and (c)
    (B) (a) only
    (C) (a) and (b) only 
    (D) (b) and (c) only

    5.Humans become less selfish when
    (A) they work in large groups
    (B) they listen to frightening stories
    (C) they listen to cheerful stories
    (D) they work in solitude


    6. Practical Possibles’ are the ones who
    (A) follow Midway Path
    (B) are doom-mongers
    (C) are self-centred
    (D) are cheerful and carefree

June 2014

Instructions: Read the following passage carefully and answer questions:

Traditional Indian Values must be viewed both from the angle of the individual and from that of the geographically delimited agglomeration of peoples or groups enjoying a common system of leadership which we call the ‘State’. The Indian ‘State’s’ special feature is the peaceful, or perhaps mostly peaceful, co-existence of social groups of various historical provenances which manually adhere in a geographical, economic and political sense, without ever assimilating to each other in social terms, in ways of thinking, or even in language. Modern Indian law will determine certain rules, especially in relation to the regime of the family, upon the basis of hwo the loin-cloth is tied, or how the turban is worn, for this may identify the litigants as members of a regional group, and therefore as participants in it traditional law, though their ancestors left the region three or four centuries earlier. The use of the word ‘State’ above must not mislead us. There was no such thing as a conflict between the individual and the State, at least before foreign governments became established, just as there was no concept of state ‘sovereignty’ or of any church-and-state dichotomy

Modem Indian ‘secularism’ has an admittedly peculiar feature: It requires the state to make a fair distribution of attention amongst all religions. These blessed aspects of India’s famed tolerance (Indian kings to rarely persecuted religious groups that the exceptions prove the rule) at once struck Portuguese and other European visitors to the West Coast of India in the sixteenth century, and the impression made upon them in this and other ways gave rise, at one remove, to the basic constitution of Thomas More’s Utopia. There is little about modern India that strikes one at once as Utopian but the insistence upon the inculcation of norms, and the absense of bigotry and  institutionalized exploitation of human or natural resources, are two very different features which link the realities of India and her tradition with the essence of all Utopians.

 

  1. Which of the following is a special feature of the Indian state?

(A) peaceful co-existence of people under a common system of leadership

(B) peaceful co-existence of social groups of different historical provenances attached to each other in a geographical, economical and political sense

(C) Social integration of all groups

(D) Cultural assimilation of all social groups

  1. The author uses the word ‘State’ to highlight

(A) Antagonistic relationship between the state and the individual throughout the period of history.

(B) Absence of conflict between the state and the individuals upto a point in time.

(C) The concept of state sovereignty

(D) Dependence of religion

 

  1. Which one is the peculiar feature of modern Indian ‘secularism’?

(A) No discrimination on religious considerations

(B) Total indifference to religion

(C) No space for social identity

(D) Disregard for social law

  1. The basic construction of Thomas More’s Utopia was inspired by

(A) Indian tradition of religious tolerance

(B) Persecution of religious groups by Indian rulers

(C) Social inequality in India

(D) European perception of Indian State

 

  1. What is the striking feature of modern India?

(A) A replica of Utopian State

(B) Uniform Laws

(C) Adherance to traditional values

(D) Absense of Bigotry

September 2013

Read the following passage carefully and answer Question:

 

I had occasion to work with her closely during the Women’s International Year in 1975 when she was chairing a Steering Committee and made me the member in charge of publicity. Representatives from different political parties and women’s organizations were on the committee and though the leftists claimed a sort of proprietary right over her, Aruna encouraged and treated all members alike. It was not her political affiliations or her involvement in a particular cause, which won her respect and recognition, but her utter honesty in public life, her integrity and her compassion for the oppressed which made her an adorable person. She had the courage to differ with and defy the mightiest in the land; yet her human spirit prompted her to work in the worst of slums to offer succour to the poor and the exploited.

  1. Who were made the members of the Committee of Publicity ?

Choose the answer from codes given below :

(i) Representatives from different political parties.

(ii) Representatives from the leftist parties.

(iii) Representatives from the women’s organizations.

(iv) None of the above.

 

Codes :

(A) (i), (iii)

(B) (i), (ii)

(C) (i), (ii), (iii)

(D) (iv)

 

  Answer (A) 

  1. Aruna earned respect because of

(A) she identified with the leftists

(B) she did not associate with any political party

(C) chairing a Steering Committee

(D) she identified with women’s organizations



  1. Who tried to monopolize Aruna as their proprietary right ?

(A) Women Organizations

(B) Leftists

(C) Steering Committee

(D) Some Political Parties

  1. Aruna’s health began to deteriorate from

(A) 1985 2002

(B) 1998 – 2000

(C) 1981 – 2000

(D) 1989 – 2001



  1. Aruna’s pet cause(s) in her life was/ were

(A) Role of media

(B) Economic justice

(C) Reaffirmation of values in public affairs

(D) All the above

  

December 2013

Instructions: Read the following passage carefully and answer questions:

 

            Heritage conservation practices improved worldwide after the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. (ICCROM) was established with UNESCO’s assistance in 1959. The inter-governmental organisation with 126 member states has done a commendable job by training more than 4,000 professionals, providing practice standards, and sharing technical expertise. In this golden jubilee year, as we acknowledge its key role in global conservation, an assessment of international practices would be meaningful to the Indian conservation movement. Consistent investment, rigorous attention, and dedicated research and dissemination are some of the positive lessons to imbibe. Countries such as Italy have demonstrated that prioritizing heritage with significant budget provision pays. 

On the other hand, India, which is no less endowed in terms of cultural capital, has a long way to go. Surveys indicate that in addition to the 6,600 protected monuments, there are over 60,000 equally valuable heritage structures that await attention. Besides the small group in the service of Archaeological Survey of India, there are only about 150 trained conservation professionals. 

In order to overcome this severe shortage the emphasis has been on setting up dedicated labs and training institutions. It would make much better sense for conservation to be made part of mainstream research and engineering Institutes, as has been done in Europe.

Increasing funding and building institutions are the relatively easy part. The real challenge is to redefine international approaches to address local contexts. Conservation cannot limit itself to enhancing the art-historical value of the heritage structures which international charters perhaps overemphasize. The effort has to be broad-based. It must also serve as a means to improving the quality of life in the area where the heritage structures are located. The first task therefore is to integrate conservation efforts with sound development plans that take care of people living in the heritage vicinity. 

Unlike in western countries, many traditional building crafts survive in India, and conservation practices offer an avenue to support them. This has been acknowledged by the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage charter for conservation but is yet to receive substantial state support. More strength for heritage conservation can be mobilised by aligning it with the green building movement. Heritage structures are essentially ecofriendly and conservation could become a vital part of the sustainable building practices campaign in future.

The first task therefore is to integrate conservation efforts with sound development plans that take care of people living in the heritage vicinity. Unlike in western countries, many traditional building crafts survive in India, and conservation practices offer an avenue to support them. This has been acknowledged by the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage charter for conservation but is yet to receive substantial state support. More strength for heritage conservation can be mobilised by aligning it with the green building movement. Heritage structures are essentially ecofriendly and conservation could become a vital part of the sustainable building practices campaign in future.

  1. The outlook for conservation heritage changed

(A) after the establishment of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property

(B) after training the specialists in the field.

(C) after extending UNESCO’s assistance to the educational institutions.

(D) after ASI’s measures to protect the monuments.

 

  1. The inter-governmental organization was appreciated because of

(A) increasing number of members to 126.

(B) imparting training to professionals and sharing technical expertise.

(C) consistent investment in conservation.

(D) its proactive role in renovation and restoration

  1. Indian conservation movement will be successful if there would be

(A) Financial support from the Government of India.

(B) Non-governmental organisations role and participation in the conservation movement.

(C) consistent investment, rigorous attention, and dedicated research and dissemination of awareness for conservation

(D) Archaeological Survey of Indias meaningful assistance. 

 

  1. As per the surveys of historical monuments in India, there is very small number of protected monuments. As per given the total number of monuments and enlisted number of protected monuments percentage comes to

(A) 10 percent

(B) 11 percent

(C) 12 percent

(D) 13 percent

  1. What should India learn from Europe to conserve our cultural heritage?

(i) There should be significant budget provision to conserve our cultural heritage.

(ii) Establish dedicated labs and training institutions.

(iii) Force the government to provide sufficient funds.

(iv) Conservation should be made part of mainstream research and engineering institutes.

Choose the correct statement

(A) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)

(B) (i), (ii), (iv)

(C) (i), (ii)

(D) (i), (iii), (iv)

 

  1. INTACH is known for its contribution for conservation of our cultural heritage. The full form of INTACH is

(A) International Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage.

(B) Intra-national Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage.

(C) Integrated Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage.

(D) Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage.

June 2012

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:

 

James Madison said, “A people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with power that knowledge gives.” In India, the Official Secrets  Act, 1923 was a convenient smokescreen to deny members of the public access to information. Public functioning has traditionally been shrouded in secrecy. But in a democracy in which people govern themselves, it is necessary to have more openness. In the maturing of our democracy, right to information is a major step forward; it enables citizens to participate fully in the decision-making process that affects their lives so profoundly. It is in this context that the address of the Prime Minister in the Lok Sabha is significant. He said, “I would only like to see that everyone, particularly our civil servants, should see the Bill in a positive spirit; not as a draconian law for paralyzing Government, but as an instrument for improving Government-Citizen interface resulting in a friendly, caring and effective Government functioning for the good of our People.” He further said, “This is an innovative Bill, where there will be scope to review its functioning as we gain experience. Therefore, this is a piece of legislation, whose working will be kept under constant reviews.”

The Commission, in its Report, has dealt with the application of the Right to Information in Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. The judiciary could be a pioneer in implementing the Act in letter and spirit because much of the work that the Judiciary does is open to public scrutiny, Government of India has sanctioned an e-governance project in the Judiciary for about  ` 700 crores which would bring about systematic classification, standardization and categorization of records. This would help the judiciary to fulfil its mandate under the Act. Similar capacity building would be required in all other public authorities. The transformation from nontransparency to transparency and public accountability is the responsibility of all three organs of State.

 

  1. A person gets power

(A) by acquiring knowledge 

(B) from the Official Secrets Act, 1923

(C) through openings 

(D) by denying public information

 

 

  1. The Prime Minister considered the Bill

 (A) to provide power to the civil servants

 (B) as an instrument for improving Governmentcitizen interface resulting in a friendly, caring and effective Government

 (C) a draconian law against the officials

 (D) to check the harassment of the people

 

  1. The Commission made the Bill effective by

 (A) extending power to the executive authorities

 (B) combining the executive and legislative power

 (C) recognizing Judiciary a pioneer in implementing the act in letter and spirit

 (D) educating the people before its implementation

  1. The Prime Minister considered the Bill innovative and hoped that 

 (A) It could be reviewed based on the experience gained on its functioning.

 (B) The civil servants would see the Bill in a positive spirit.

 (C) It would not be considered as a draconian law for paralyzing Government 

 (D) All the above

 

  1. The transparency and public accountability is the responsibility of three organs of the State.

These three organs are

 (A) Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Judiciary

 (B) Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and

Executive

 (C) Judiciary, Legislature and the Commission

 (D) Legislature, Executive and Judiciary 

For clear explanation and answer watch

Reading Comprehension Basics and Tips
Nov 2017 Reading Comprehension
Dec 2015, Jan 2017 Reading Comprehension
August 2016, Dec 2014 Reading Comprehension
July 2016, June 2015 Reading Comprehension
June 2014, Sep 2013 Reading Comprehension
Dec 2013, June 2012 Reading Comprehension
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4 thoughts on “Reading Comprehension all notes for NTA UGC NET JRF”

  1. Hello friends you can complete RC within 2 hours

    Steps:

    visit 1st 2 video lessons from link given below
    Then try to solve RCs on this page as these are without answers 
    write down your answers and then match from lessons given at end of this page
    Review the course as you completed this task

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